Programming Languages We Cover

Objective-C is a general-purpose, high-level, object-oriented programming language that adds Smalltalk-style messaging to the C programming language. It is the main programming language used by Apple for the OS X and iOS operating systems and their respective APIs, Cocoa and Cocoa Touch.

Originally developed in the early 1980s, it was selected as the main language used by NeXT for its NeXTSTEP operating system, from which OS X and iOS are derived. Generic Objective-C programs that do not use the Cocoa or Cocoa Touch libraries can also be compiled for any system supported by GCC or Clang.

Objective-C is a thin layer on top of C, and moreover is a strict superset of C; it is possible to compile any C program with an Objective-C compiler, and to freely include C code within an Objective-C class.

Objective-C derives its object syntax from Smalltalk. All of the syntax for non-object-oriented operations (including primitive variables, pre-processing, expressions, function declarations, and function calls) are identical to that of C, while the syntax for object-oriented features is an implementation of Smalltalk-style messaging

C++ (pronounced "see plus plus") is a statically typed, free-form, multi-paradigm, compiled, general-purpose programming language. It is regarded as an intermediate-level language, as it comprises a combination of both high-level and low-level language features. Developed by Bjarne Stroustrup starting in 1979 at Bell Labs, it adds object oriented features, such as classes, and other enhancements to the C programming language. Originally named C with Classes, the language was renamed C++ in 1983, as a pun involving the increment operator.

C++ is one of the most popular programming languages and is implemented on a wide variety of hardware and operating system platforms. As an efficient compiler to native code, its application domains include systems software, application software, device drivers, embedded software, high-performance server and client applications, and entertainment software such as video games.

C++ is also used for hardware design, where the design is initially described in C++, then analyzed, architecturally constrained, and scheduled to create a register-transfer level hardware description language via high-level synthesis.

C# (pronounced see sharp) is a multi-paradigm programming language encompassing strong typing, imperative, declarative,functional, generic, object-oriented (class-based), and component-oriented programming disciplines. It was developed by Microsoft within its .NET initiative and later approved as a standard by Ecma (ECMA-334) and ISO (ISO/IEC 23270:2006). C# is one of the programming languages designed for the Common Language Infrastructure.

C# is intended to be a simple, modern, general-purpose, object-oriented programming language. Its development team is led by Anders Hejlsberg. The most recent version is C# 5.0, which was released on August 15, 2012.

Microsoft Visual C# is Microsoft's implementation of the C# specification, included in the Microsoft Visual Studio suite of products. It is based on the ECMA/ISO specification of the C# language, which Microsoft also created. While multiple implementations of the specification exist, Visual C# is by far the one most commonly used. In most contexts, an unqualified reference to "C#" is taken to mean "Visual C#".

Java is a general-purpose, concurrent, class-based, object-oriented computer programming language that is specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible. It is intended to let application developers "write once, run anywhere" (WORA), meaning that code that runs on one platform does not need to be recompiled to run on another. Java applications are typically compiled to bytecode (class file) that can run on any Java virtual machine (JVM) regardless of computer architecture. Java is, as of 2012, one of the most popular programming languages in use, particularly for client-server web applications, with a reported 10 million users. Java was originally developed by James Gosling at Sun Microsystems (which has since merged into Oracle Corporation) and released in 1995 as a core component of Sun Microsystems' Java platform. The language derives much of its syntax from C and C++, but it has fewer low-level facilities than either of them.

The syntax of Java is largely derived from C++. Unlike C++, which combines the syntax for structured, generic, and object-oriented programming, Java was built almost exclusively as an object-oriented language. All code is written inside a class, and everything is an object, with the exception of the primitive data types (e.g. integers, floating-point numbers, boolean values, and characters), which are not classes for performance reasons.

ASP.NET is a server-side Web application framework designed for Web development to produce dynamic Web pages. It was developed by Microsoft to allow programmers to build dynamic web sites, web applications and web services. It was first released in January 2002 with version 1.0 of the .NET Framework, and is the successor to Microsoft's Active Server Pages technology. ASP.NET is built on the Common Language Runtime, allowing programmers to write ASP.NET code using any supported .NET language. The ASP.NET SOAP extension framework allows ASP.NET components to process SOAP messages.

ASP.NET aims for performance benefits over other script-based technologies by compiling the server-side code to one or more DLL files on the Web server. This compilation happens automatically the first time a page is requested. This feature provides the ease of development offered by scripting languages with the performance benefits of a compiled binary. However, the compilation might cause a noticeable but short delay to the Web user when the newly edited page is first requested from the Web server, but will not again unless the page requested is updated further. The ASPX and other resource files are placed in a virtual host on an Internet Information Services server. The first time a client requests a page, the .NET Framework parses and compiles the file(s) into a .NET assembly and sends the response; subsequent requests are served from the DLL files. By default ASP.NET will compile the entire site in batches of 1000 files upon first request. If the compilation delay is causing problems, the batch size or the compilation strategy may be tweaked. Developers can also choose to pre-compile their "codebehind" files before deployment, using MS Visual Studio, eliminating the need for just-in-time compilation in a production environment. This also eliminates the need of having the source code on the Web server. It also supports pre-compile text.

is a markup language for structuring and presenting content for the World Wide Web and a core technology of the Internet. It is the fifth revision of the HTML standard (created in 1990 and standardized as HTML4 as of 1997) and, as of December 2012, is a W3C Candidate Recommendation. Its core aims have been to improve the language with support for the latest multimedia while keeping it easily readable by humans and consistently understood by computers and devices (web browsers, parsers, etc.). HTML5 is intended to subsume not only HTML 4, but XHTML 1 and DOM Level 2 HTML as well.

HTML5 is often compared to Flash, but the two technologies are very different. Both include features for playing audio and video within web pages, and for using Scalable Vector Graphics. HTML5 on its own cannot be used for animation and interactivity — it must be supplemented with CSS3 or Javascript. There are many Flash capabilities that have no direct counterpart in HTML5.

For mobile developers HTML5 is provided with with tools such as Offline Web Storage, GeoLocation API, Canvas Drawing, CSS3, and many more.

Adobe Integrated Runtime, also known as Adobe AIR, is a cross-platform run-time system developed by Adobe Systems for building Rich Internet applications (RIA) using Adobe Flash, Apache Flex (formerly Adobe Flex), HTML, and Ajax, that can be run as desktop applications or on mobile devices. The runtime supports installable applications on Windows, Mac OS and some mobile operating systems such as BlackBerry Tablet OS, iOS and Android, or the BBC iPlayer Desktop. It also originally supported Linux, but that support was discontinued.

Adobe AIR internally uses Adobe Flash Player as the runtime environment, and ActionScript 3 as the sole programming language. Flash applications must specifically be built for the Adobe AIR runtime in order to utilize additional features provided, such as file-system integration, native-client extensions, native window/screen integration, taskbar/dock integration, and hardware integration with connected Accelerometer and GPS devices. AIR enables applications to work with data in multiple different ways, including using local files, local SQLite databases (for which AIR has inbuilt support), a database server via web services, or the encrypted local store included with AIR.

React, also known as React.js or ReactJS, is an open-source JavaScript framework for building user interfaces. React allows developers to create large web applications that use data which can change over time, without reloading the page. Its main goal is to be fast, simple and scalable. React processes only user interface in applications. This corresponds to View in the Model-View-Controller (MVC) template, and can be used in combination with other JavaScript libraries or frameworks in MVC, such as AngularJS. It can also be used with React based on add-ons to take care of without the user interface parts of web developing.

AngularJS (commonly referred to as "Angular.js" or "AngularJS 1.X") is a JavaScript-based open-source front-end web application framework mainly maintained by Google and by a community of individuals and corporations to address many of the challenges encountered in developing single-page applications. The JavaScript components complement Apache Cordova, the framework used for developing cross-platform mobile apps. It aims to simplify both the development and the testing of such applications by providing a framework for client-side model–view–controller (MVC) and model–view–viewmodel (MVVM) architectures, along with components commonly used in rich Internet applications. In 2014, the original AngularJS team began working on Angular (Application Platform). The AngularJS framework works by first reading the HTML page, which has embedded into it additional custom tag attributes. Angular interprets those attributes as directives to bind input or output parts of the page to a model that is represented by standard JavaScript variables. The values of those JavaScript variables can be manually set within the code, or retrieved from static or dynamic JSON resources.

AngularJS is built on the belief that declarative programming should be used to create user interfaces and connect software components, while imperative programming is better suited to defining an application's business logic. The framework adapts and extends traditional HTML to present dynamic content through two-way data-binding that allows for the automatic synchronization of models and views. As a result, AngularJS de-emphasizes explicit DOM manipulation with the goal of improving testability and performance.

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